LIRE - TO READ

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WELCOME! 
LIRE - FRENCH VERB CONJUGATIONS - PRESENT
LIRE is an irregular verb 
présent de l'indicatif
negative?
jelis[je lis]
tulis[tu lis]
illit[il lit]
nouslisons[nous lisons]
vouslisez[vous lisez]
ilslisent[ils lisent]
présent de l'indicatif
positive?
jenelispas [je ne lis pas]
tunelispas [tu ne lis pas]
ilnelitpas [il ne lit pas]
nousnelisonspas [nous ne lisons pas]
vousnelisezpas [vous ne lisez pas]
ilsnelisentpas [ils ne lisent pas]
[LIRE]
LIRE
TO READ
It means that only irregular verbs ending with [-LIRE] have the same pattern: We call it irregular for this reason. It’s regular with its mates but it has an irregular pattern when compared with the 7000 other verbs in the French language. LIRE belongs to the 3rd group. In the 3rd group, all the verbs are irregular. Good news: only 25% of all French verbs are irregular. Bad news: this 25% contain the most important verbs for beginners.
PRÉSENT DE L'INDICATIF

This tense is used most of the time. It indicates an action which is happening at the present time or a habitual action.

HOW TO USE LIRE: (LIRE EXAMPLES)
- GENERAL USE -
definitionsexample use 
to read,  to understandCe texte peut être lu de différentes façons  
- FORMAL USE -
definitionsexample useexpression
to readLire en diagonal Elle lit ses dossiers en diagonal et s'en souvient 
to readLire sur les lèvres Elle lit sur les lèvres de son mari 
to readLire dans le jeu de quelqu'un Je lis parfaitement dans son jeu 
to readLire entre les lignes Tu lis toujours entre les lignes, comme ça? 
to readLire les lignes de la main Elle peut lire les lignes de la main 
to readLire à haute voix Elle lit son texte à haute voix 
to readLire dans les pensées Elle lit dans les pensées 
to readLire dans le marc de café Ma grand-mère lit dans le marc de café 
to readLire en qqn comme dans un livre ouvert Elle lit en moi comme dans un livre ouvert 
WHAT'S A TENSE ? 
CONJUGATE FRENCH VERB LIRE
What can you do with the present tense ? 
passé récent
negative?
jeviensdelire
tuviensdelire
ilvientdelire
nousvenonsdelire
vousvenezdelire
ilsviennentdelire
passé récent
positive?
jenevienspasdelire 
tunevienspasdelire 
ilnevientpasdelire 
nousnevenonspasdelire 
vousnevenezpasdelire 
ilsneviennentpasdelire 
futur proche
negative?
jevaislire
tuvaslire
ilvalire
nousallonslire
vousallezlire
ilsvontlire
futur proche
positive?
jenevaispaslire 
tunevaspaslire 
ilnevapaslire 
nousn'allonspaslire 
vousn'allezpaslire 
ilsnevontpaslire 
impératif
negative?
lis
lisons
lisez
impératif
positive?
 
nelispas 
 
nelisonspas 
nelisezpas 
 
Well, with the present tense you can describe actions which are occurring now, in the present. But you can do many other things with it too. Look below and you will see that, in French, you can use the present tense combined with other features in such a way that it means something totally different.
IMPÉRATIF

The French imperative (the command tense) of 1st group verbs is very easy to learn. It is used to express command or a request. It's actually the normal present tense but a shorter version.

It is formed
by dropping the "I, you, he, she, we, you, they", of the present tense. Then you erase nearly all the persons but 3; the "you" singular, the "you" plural and the "we" plural.

FUTUR PROCHE

The "futur proche" (near future) is made of the present tense plus another verb. If you look at the conjugation you'll see another verb: ALLER.

The NEAR FUTURE
is therefore expressed by ALLER in the present tense plus the infinitive (the raw verb) of the verb action you are talking about. If you want to speak in future, you just have to learn ALLER (3rd group, irregular).

PASSÉ RÉCENT

The passé recent (recent past) is made of the present tense plus another verb. If you look at the conjugation you'll see another verb: VENIR DE.

The past tense
is therefore expressed by VENIR DE in the present tense plus the infinitive (the raw verb) of the verb action you are talking about. If you want to speak in past, you just have to learn VENIR (3rd group, irregular).

THE 3 FRENCH VERB GROUPS 
LIRE - FRENCH VERB CONJUGATIONS
What ? Another present tense ? 
le conditionnel présent
negative?
jelirais
tulirais
illirait
nouslirions
vousliriez
ilsliraient
le conditionnel présent
positive?
jeneliraispas 
tuneliraispas 
ilneliraitpas 
nousnelirionspas 
vousneliriezpas 
ilsneliraientpas 
What? A second present tense? I don't understand; I thought there was only one present tense! Help!
LE CONDITIONNEL PRÉSENT

The conditional is used in French to express: Courtesy. If you want to be polite in French, use this mood: Je voudrais du café, s'il vous plaît. I would like some coffee, please. An obligation or duty: Nous devrions partir pour prendre le dernier métro. We should leave if we want to get the last train.

Remember
: The French verb DEVOIR + Infinitive is the exact translation for SHOULD: We should leave if we want to catch the last train. The French verb POUVOIR is the exact translation for COULD or WOULD BE ABLE TO: Nous pourrions venir après le déjeuner. We would be able to come after lunch.

WHAT'S A VERB ? 
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... What's a verb? A verb is doing word; it's an action like to TO EAT, TO SPEAK, TO LEARN, TO CONTROL, TO BE etc. You could argue that TO BE, is not an action. And I'll answer that TO DO NOTHING is also an action. Did you get that? ...

Similar French Verbs
compulser  |  consulter  |  feuilleter  |  parcourir  |  survoler  |  décoder
WHAT'S A MOOD ? 
WHAT'S AN INFINITIVE ? 
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... An infinitive is the raw verb. It means "not expressing tense". For instance, in the sentence: "I go to bed early", the infinitive for the verb "I go" is: TO GO. So easy! In English, you get the infinitive adding TO before the verb in the sentence. Infinitives are everywhere. Look at this example: I want to leave early tonight. Yes, after a verb use with a person (I, you, he, she, etc.); in our example "I want", you'll always have an infinitive, in our example: to leave. ...

FRENCH VERB LIRE - THE INDICATIVE MOOD
The indicative mood – Recap. 
présent de l'indicatif
negative?
jelis[je lis]
tulis[tu lis]
illit[il lit]
nouslisons[nous lisons]
vouslisez[vous lisez]
ilslisent[ils lisent]
présent de l'indicatif
positive?
jenelispas [je ne lis pas]
tunelispas [tu ne lis pas]
ilnelitpas [il ne lit pas]
nousnelisonspas [nous ne lisons pas]
vousnelisezpas [vous ne lisez pas]
ilsnelisentpas [ils ne lisent pas]
The easiest mood! If you want to merely make a statement or ask a question about anything really, you'll use the most common mood, the Indicative Mood. In short, this is the mood we use most of the time; the present, the future, the imperfect you normally use are indicative.
PRÉSENT DE L'INDICATIF

This tense is used most of the time. It indicates an action which is happening at the present time or a habitual action.

LIRE - FRENCH VERB CONJUGATIONS - VERB LIRE
futur
negative?
jelirai
tuliras
illira
nouslirons
vouslirez
ilsliront
futur
positive?
jeneliraipas 
tuneliraspas 
ilnelirapas 
nousnelironspas 
vousnelirezpas 
ilsnelirontpas 
imparfait de l'indicatif
negative?
jelisais
tulisais
illisait
nouslisions
vouslisiez
ilslisaient
imparfait de l'indicatif
positive?
jenelisaispas 
tunelisaispas 
ilnelisaitpas 
nousnelisionspas 
vousnelisiezpas 
ilsnelisaientpas 
passé simple
negative?
jelus
tulus
illut
nouslûmes
vouslûtes
ilslurent
passé simple
positive?
jeneluspas 
tuneluspas 
ilnelutpas 
nousnelûmespas 
vousnelûtespas 
ilsnelurentpas 
PASSÉ SIMPLE

Good news! This past tense is not used in conversional French. Only literary people use it in formal writing, for example, in a novel or a history book. The truth is that this tense is nearly dead. So… You can forget it for the moment (unless your proficiency level is very very high)

IMPARFAIT DE L'INDICATIF

This is a past tense. It is use to indicate repetition in the past or a habit in the past: Nous allions au restaurant tous les jours. We used to go to the restaurant every day.

It is also
the tense you must use when describing an action in the past: Il était heureux quand je l'ai vu. He was happy when I saw him.

FUTUR

This tense expresses an action which will take place at some time in the future. Nous irons en Chine l'hiver prochain. We will go to China next summer

WHAT'S A COMPOUND TENSE ? 
PASSÉ COMPOSÉ
More about The indicative mood! 
passé composé
negative?
j'ailu[j'ai lu]
tuaslu[tu as lu]
ilalu[il a lu]
nousavonslu[nous avons lu]
vousavezlu[vous avez lu]
ilsontlu[ils ont lu]
passé composé
positive?
jen'aipaslu [je n'ai pas lu]
tun'aspaslu [tu n'as pas lu]
iln'apaslu [il n'a pas lu]
nousn'avonspaslu [nous n'avons pas lu]
vousn'avezpaslu [vous n'avez pas lu]
ilsn'ontpaslu [ils n'ont pas lu]
In French there are 7 compound tenses. But only 4 of them belong to the INDICATIVE.
PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

The Past Indefinite or Compound Past is used in everyday French. It's the informal past tense. It's used when people want to talk about facts, about actions which are finished in the past.

If you want
to describe your day at school or at the office, for example, you must use the Compound Past. There is no other way to do it.

If you want
to know what a compound tense is, go to the tab on the left hand side which says: "What's a compound tense?". Clever!?

TIP 
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... TIP: verb conjugation only occurs in two general areas: using person (I, you, he, she, etc.) and for tenses (Present, past, future, etc.). Conjugation for person happens when the subject changes; it depends on who is acting: I, you, he, she, etc. For example, we have I learn, you learn, s/he learns, etc. Using tense (past, present, future, etc.), remember that all verb conjugation starts with an infinitive verb (Put simple: an infinitive is the to form of a verb: to have, to be, to learn, etc.) ...

WHAT'S A PAST PARTICIPLE ? 
CONJUGATE FRENCH VERB LIRE - VERB LIRE
Tip 
plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif
negative?
j'avaislu
tuavaislu
ilavaitlu
nousavionslu
vousaviezlu
ilsavaientlu
plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif
positive?
jen'avaispaslu 
tun'avaispaslu 
iln'avaitpaslu 
nousn'avionspaslu 
vousn'aviezpaslu 
ilsn'avaientpaslu 
passé antérieur de l'indicatif
negative?
j'euslu
tueuslu
ileutlu
nouseûmeslu
vouseûteslu
ilseurentlu
passé antérieur de l'indicatif
positive?
jen'euspaslu 
tun'euspaslu 
iln'eutpaslu 
nousn'eûmespaslu 
vousn'eûtespaslu 
ilsn'eurentpaslu 
futur antérieur
negative?
j'aurailu
tuauraslu
ilauralu
nousauronslu
vousaurezlu
ilsaurontlu
futur antérieur
positive?
jen'auraipaslu 
tun'auraspaslu 
iln'aurapaslu 
nousn'auronspaslu 
vousn'aurezpaslu 
ilsn'aurontpaslu 
It's really easy to understand compound tenses when you realise that:
*
The second part is always the same (It's like the –ed form in English; it's always the same in compound tenses).
*
But, the first part is not always in present tense. Remember the Compound past? J'ai préparé des spaghetti. (Literally: I have prepared spaghetti). This 1st part is in the present tense!

Now
, Look at the following tense: the pluperfect (le Plus-que-parfait):
J'avais préparé des spaghetti.
(I had prepared spaghetti). "I had" is not a present tense: it's the imperfect of TO HAVE. Thus, The pluperfect in English is identical to French; the first part of the tense is in the past.

Now
, look at this tense in English (tricky one): "I will have prepared spaghetti". The 1st part is "will have" (It's a future – The tense is called Future perfect and yes, it's English). In French, we will say: J'aurai préparé des spaghetti ("j'aurai" is TO HAVE in the future).
FUTUR ANTÉRIEUR

The Future Perfect or Future Anterior, is an interesting tense. In French and English, it is used to express an action which will happen in the future before another future action.

In English
we commonly use Shall have or will have + the Past participle.

See
the following example: When she calls me tomorrow, I shall have finished my report (Quand elle appellera demain, j'aurai fini mon rapport).

PASSÉ ANTÉRIEUR DE L'INDICATIF

Past Anterior. This tense is not very used in French; it's a literary tense (writing only). So, unless you are a writer and/or you want to read Balzac, you can put it aside for the moment.

PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT DE L'INDICATIF

The pluperfect or Past Perfect Indicative is used to express an action which happened in the past before another past action.

Tricky?
No. Look at the following example: "I had seen the movie he told us about." "I had seen" is the Pluperfect. You might never have seen this structure because in English, it's not really used. But it's perfectly correct. First someone told us about a movie (Past tense), second, I had seen it before (Action of "seeing" before the action of "telling"). Both tense are in the Past.

WHAT'S A PRESENT PARTICIPLE? 
FRENCH VERB LIRE - THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
The Conditional Mood 
le conditionnel présent
negative?
jelirais
tulirais
illirait
nouslirions
vousliriez
ilsliraient
le conditionnel présent
positive?
jeneliraispas 
tuneliraispas 
ilneliraitpas 
nousnelirionspas 
vousneliriezpas 
ilsneliraientpas 
It refers to actions / events which would, should or could happen in the future if certain conditions were met. In short, when an English speaker wants to use WOULD, SHOULD or COULD; she / he uses the conditional mood. Look at the following simple tense in conditional:
THE CONDITIONAL AND JOURNALISM

The conditional is often used in journalistic language. When journalists want to state something as an "alleged" fact, or doesn't wish to state something definitely true they use the conditional.

It is
also used in French as "could" and "would" are in English to make a request more polite: Je voudrais réserver une table pour deux, s'il vous plaît. (I would like to book a table for two, please.)

WHAT'S A TRANSITIVE VERB? 
CONJUGATE FRENCH VERB LIRE
The conditional's compound tense! 
le conditionnel passé
negative?
j'auraislu
tuauraislu
ilauraitlu
nousaurionslu
vousauriezlu
ilsauraientlu
le conditionnel passé
positive?
jen'auraispaslu 
tun'auraispaslu 
iln'auraitpaslu 
nousn'aurionspaslu 
vousn'auriezpaslu 
ilsn'auraientpaslu 
The conditional has only one compound tense; the Conditional Perfect (le Conditionnel Passé).
LE CONDITIONNEL PASSÉ

The Conditional Perfect. Is used to express an action or an event that you would have done if something else had been possible. "Would have" could be translated by the French conditional "j'aurais".

"Done"
is the past participle of to do (fait).

WHAT IS A SUBORDINATE CLAUSE? 
CONJUGATE FRENCH VERB LIRE - VERB LIRE
The Subjunctive mood 
présent du subjonctif
negative?
quejelise
quetulises
qu'illise
quenouslisions
quevouslisiez
qu'ilslisent
présent du subjonctif
positive?
quejenelisepas
quetunelisespas
qu'ilnelisepas
quenousnelisionspas
quevousnelisiezpas
qu'ilsnelisentpas
imparfait du subjonctif
negative?
quejelusse
quetulusses
qu'illût
quenouslussions
quevouslussiez
qu'ilslussent
imparfait du subjonctif
positive?
quejenelussepas
quetunelussespas
qu'ilnelûtpas
quenousnelussionspas
quevousnelussiezpas
qu'ilsnelussentpas
The Subjunctive mood is used in French much more than in English (Actually, most English speakers don't know that it even exists!). But the Subjunctive is quite commonly used in English to express an idea contrary to a fact: "If I were you, I would learn a second language". In French, it is a very common tense. You'll use it if you want to express a wish, a fear, a doubt or a supposition.
IMPARFAIT DU SUBJONCTIF

The Imperfect subjunctive is not in use anymore. You'll find it in literature and old poetry. This tense is also rarely used in English.

PRÉSENT DU SUBJONCTIF

The subjunctive is used mainly in subordinate clause. It means that in the majority of cases where the subjunctive is used, there is no other choice; it is required after some specific expression. These expression express fear, doubt, supposition and wish.

Hang
on a minute! What does subordinate mean? See the tab on the left hand side of this page.

WHAT'S AN INTRANSITIVE VERB? 
FRENCH VERB LIRE - THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
The subjunctive mood and compound tenses 
passé du subjonctif
negative?
quej'aielu
quetuaieslu
qu'ilaitlu
quenousayonslu
quevousayezlu
qu'ilsaientlu
passé du subjonctif
positive?
quejen'aiepaslu
quetun'aiespaslu
qu'iln'aitpaslu
quenousn'ayonspaslu
quevousn'ayezpaslu
qu'ilsn'aientpaslu
plus-que-parfait du subjonctif
negative?
quej'eusselu
quetueusseslu
qu'ileûtlu
quenouseussionslu
quevouseussiezlu
qu'ilseussentlu
plus-que-parfait du subjonctif
positive?
quejen'eussepaslu
quetun'eussespaslu
qu'iln'eûtpaslu
quenousn'eussionspaslu
quevousn'eussiezpaslu
qu'ilsn'eussentpaslu
spe The subjunctive mood has also compound tenses. The following ones are not very common in every day French conversation. They are actually quite rare.
PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT DU SUBJONCTIF

The Pluperfect or Past Perfect Subjunctive is rarely used in French and in English.

This tense
is avoided in conversational informal writing and speaking. It is useful if you read a lot of French literature from the 19th century.

PASSÉ DU SUBJONCTIF

The past or perfect subjunctive expresses a past action which is in relation to the present time.

This tense
is very rarely used in English but quite common in French. Il est probable qu'elle ait téléphoné (It's probable she may have called)

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